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Background: Afghanistan

1953: Prince Mohammad Daoud becomes Prime Minister.

1954: The U.S. rejects request to buy military equipment.

1955: Prime Minister Daoud turns to the USSR for military aid.

1956: Soviet leader Khruschev agrees to help Afghanistan.

1959: Women begin to enroll in the University.

1961: War nearly breaks out with Pakistan over Pashtunistan.

1963-1964:
- Zahir Shah demands Daoud's resignation.
- Dr. Mohammad Yussof becomes Prime Minister.

1965:
January - The Afghan Communist Party secretly formed. Babrak Karmal is one of the founders.
September - 1st nationwide elections under the new constitution. Karmal elected to the Parliament.
- Zahir and Yussof form second government.

1969: 2nd nationwide elections; Babrak and Hafizullah Amin elected.

1972: Mohammad Moussa becomes Prime Minister.

1973:
July 17 - While Zahir Shah is in Europe, his government is overthrown in a military coup headed by Daoud Khan and PDPA (Afghan Communist Party).
- Daoud Khan abolishes the monarchy and declares himself President.
- Republic of Afghanistan is established.

1975-1977:
- Daoud Khan presents a new constitution.
- Women's rights confirmed.

1978:
- Communist coup: Daoud is killed, Taraki is named President and Karmal becomes his deputy Prime Minister.
- Mass arrests, tortures, and arrests takes place.
- Afghan flag is changed.
- Taraki signs treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union.
June - Afghan guerrilla (Mujahideen) movement is born.