: Part of the Persian Empire;
: Conquered and fitfully ruled by Alexander the Great;
: Kushan rule; Buddhist Gandharan culture reaches its height;
: Kushan dynasty breaks apart;
: Invasion of White Huns; Buddhist culture destroyed;
: Independent Yaftalee rule;
: Reconquered by the Persians;
: Arabs introduce Islam into the country.
: Islamic Ghaznavid Dynasty;
: Invaded by Genghis Khan;
: Crossed by Marco Polo;
: Ruled by Tamerlane;
: Babur, Moghul dynasty founder, takes control of Kabul;
: Bayazid Roshan revolts against the Moghul rule.
: Khushhal Khan Khattak revolts against Moghul rule.
: Mir Wais makes Kandahar independent of Safavid Persia.
: Mir Wais' son, Mir Mahmud, invades Persia.
: Mir Mahmud is mysteriously killed after going mad.
- Afghans start to lose control of Persia.
: Nadir Shah (head of Persia) occupies southwest Afghanistan;
: Nadir Shah takes Kandahar;