- Nadir Shah is assassinated, and the Afghans rise once again.
- Ahmad Shah Abdali retakes Kandahar and modern Afghanistan is born.
: Ahmad Shah Abdali rules.
- Rule of Timur Shah;
- Capital transferred from Kandahar to Kabul;
: Rule of Zaman Shah;
: Rule of Mahmood;
: Rule of Shah Shujah;
: Mahmood returns to the throne.
: Sons of Timur Shah struggle for the throne: Civil War;
: Dost Mohammad Khan takes Kabul.
: Persia moves into Khurasan and threatens Herat.
: Peshawar lost to the Sikhs.
- Dost Mohammad Khan is proclaimed as Amir al-mu' minin (commander of the faithful).
- The British invade Afghanistan.
- First Anglo-Afghan War;
- After some resistance, Amir Dost Mohammad Khan surrenders to the British and is deported to India.
- Shah Shuja is installed as a "puppet king" by the British. (1839-1842)
: Shah Shuja killed by Afghans.
: Afghanistan defeats the British and regains independence.
: Dost Mohammad Khan comes back and rules.