Background: Afghanistan

1843-1863: Dost Mohammad Khan comes back and rules.

1845: Akbar Khan dies.

1855: Dost Mohammad Khan signs a peace treaty with India.

1863-1866: Sher Ali, Dost Mohammad Khan's son, rules.

1865: Russia takes Bukhara, Tashkent, and Samarkand.

Mohammad Afzal occupies Kabul and proclaims himself Amir.

October, 1867: Mohammad Afzal dies.

1867-1868: Mohammad Azam succeeds to the throne.

1868: Mohammad Azam flees to Persia.

1868-1879: Sher Ali reasserts control.

1873: Russia established a fixed boundary with Afghanistan.

1878: Start of second Anglo-Afghan War;

- Sher Ali dies in Mazar-i-Shariff.
- Amir Muhammad Yaqub Khan takes over until October 1879.

- Battle of Maiwand;
- Abdur Rahman takes throne of Afghanistan as Amir.
- The British withdraw from Afghanistan, but retain the right to handle Afghanistan's foreign relations.

1893: The Durand line fixes borders of Afghanistan with British India, splitting Afghan tribal areas, leaving half of these in what is now Pakistan.

1895: Northern border is fixed and guaranteed by Russia.

1901: Abdur Rahman dies and his son Habibullah succeeds him.

1907: Russia and Great Britain sign the convention of St. Petersburg, in which Afghanistan is declared outside Russia's sphere of influence.