Battle of Quebec
On May 10, 1775, Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold had captured Fort Ticonderoga. On June 25, Maj. General Philip Schuyler had been put in command of the newly formed Northern Department based at Fort Ticonderoga. On June 27, the Continental Congress authorized an invasion of Canada, which Schuyler's second-in-command, Brig. General Richard Montgomery received. On August 27, General Montgomery set out for Canada. The Americans established a base of operations at Ile Aux Noix, Quebec on September 5 with Schuyler now in command.
In Massachusetts on September 13, Benedict Arnold set out for Canada in command of 1,000 volunteers including Captain Daniel Morgan. Arnold planned to march up through Maine into Canada. The route turned out to be very difficult for the poorly supplied force with many portages to navigate, snowstorms and illness. On September 16, Schuyler returned to Fort Ticonderoga due to ill health, leaving Montgomery in command. On September 25, Ethan Allen was captured during a failed attack on the British fort at St. Johns.
On October 25, Benedict Arnold lost 350 men who turned back, but the remaining 600 continued on. After a long siege on November 2, St. Johns fell to General Montgomery. On November 8, Benedict Arnold arrived at Point Levis on the St. Lawrence River, opposite of Quebec City. Montgomery occupied Montreal on November 13, while Arnold was finally able to cross the St. Lawrence River. Arnold then withdrew to Point-Aux-Trembles and waited for reinforcements from Montgomery, while Carleton marched into Quebec City after having abandoned Montreal.
On December 3, General Montgomery arrived at Point-Aux-Trembles with only 350 men, having left the rest at Montreal. On December 5, Montgomery and Arnold began a siege and demanded surrender, which was rebuffed by General Carleton. Montgomery and Arnold knew they had to act soon, because the expedition's enlistments ended on December 31. They decided to attack under the cover of a snowstorm. After a near miss on December 27, a huge storm brewed on the night of December 30.
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