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Background: Pakistan

Independence: August 14, 1947 (from the United Kingdom);

Adjacent Countries: Afghanistan (northwest), China (north), India (east), Iran (west);
Click Here for a map

Government: Federal Republic; Capital: Islamabad
Chief of State:
President Mohammad Rafiq TARAR (since 31 December 1997)
Head of Gov't:
Chief Executive Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 12 October 1999)

Population (July 2001 est.):
144,616,639

Infant mortality rate (2001 est.):
9.26 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth (2001 est.):
Total Population: 61.45 years
Male: 60.61 years
Female: 62.32 years

Ethnic groups:
Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants)

Religions:
Muslim - 97% (Sunni - 77%, Shi'a - 20%)
Christian, Hindu, and other - 3%

Languages:
Punjabi - 48%
Sindhi - 12%
Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) - 10%
Pashtu - 8%
Urdu (official) - 8%
Balochi - 3%
Hindko - 2%
Brahui - 1%
English, Burushaski and other - 8%

Literacy: (definition: age 15 and over can read and write)(1994 est.)
Total Population: 42.7%
Male: 55.3%
Female: 29%